看看Spring的源码(二)——bean实例化

首先来看一段代码,看过上一节的朋友肯定对这段代码并不陌生。这一段代码诠释了Spring加载bean的完整过程,包括读取配置文件,扫描包,加载类,实例化bean,注入bean属性依赖。

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public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
synchronized (this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
// Prepare this context for refreshing.
prepareRefresh();

// Tell the subclass to refresh the internal bean factory.
ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = obtainFreshBeanFactory();

// Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

try {
// Allows post-processing of the bean factory in context subclasses.
postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);

// Invoke factory processors registered as beans in the context.
invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);

// Register bean processors that intercept bean creation.
registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);

// Initialize message source for this context.
initMessageSource();

// Initialize event multicaster for this context.
initApplicationEventMulticaster();

// Initialize other special beans in specific context subclasses.
onRefresh();

// Check for listener beans and register them.
registerListeners();

// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);

// Last step: publish corresponding event.
finishRefresh();
}
}
}

上一节介绍了Spring是如何加载class文件的,本节主要围绕finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory)方法,聊聊Spring是如何实例化bean的,从上面代码片段中的注解不难看出,此方法主要的任务就是实例化非懒加载的单例bean。闲话少叙,看代码。

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protected void finishBeanFactoryInitialization(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
// Initialize conversion service for this context.
if (beanFactory.containsBean(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME) &&
beanFactory.isTypeMatch(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME, ConversionService.class)) {
beanFactory.setConversionService(
beanFactory.getBean(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME, ConversionService.class));
}

// Initialize LoadTimeWeaverAware beans early to allow for registering their transformers early.
String[] weaverAwareNames = beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(LoadTimeWeaverAware.class, false, false);
for (String weaverAwareName : weaverAwareNames) {
getBean(weaverAwareName);
}

// Stop using the temporary ClassLoader for type matching.
beanFactory.setTempClassLoader(null);

// Allow for caching all bean definition metadata, not expecting further changes.
beanFactory.freezeConfiguration();

// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
beanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons();
}

上面代码主要看最后一句beanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons()

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public void preInstantiateSingletons() throws BeansException {
if (this.logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
this.logger.debug("Pre-instantiating singletons in " + this);
}
List<String> beanNames;
synchronized (this.beanDefinitionMap) {

// Iterate over a copy to allow for init methods which in turn register new bean definitions.
// While this may not be part of the regular factory bootstrap, it does otherwise work fine.
beanNames = new ArrayList<String>(this.beanDefinitionNames);
}

for (String beanName : beanNames) {
RootBeanDefinition bd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
if (!bd.isAbstract() && bd.isSingleton() && !bd.isLazyInit()) {

if (isFactoryBean(beanName)) {
final FactoryBean<?> factory = (FactoryBean<?>) getBean(FACTORY_BEAN_PREFIX + beanName);
boolean isEagerInit;

if (System.getSecurityManager() != null && factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean) {
isEagerInit = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Boolean>() {
@Override
public Boolean run() {
return ((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit();
}
}, getAccessControlContext());
}
else {
isEagerInit = (factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean &&
((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit());
}
if (isEagerInit) {
getBean(beanName);
}

}
else {
getBean(beanName);
}

}
}
}

此方法首先将加载进来的beanDefinitionNames循环分析,如果是我们自己配置的bean就会走else中的getBean(beanName),接着看。

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@Override
public Object getBean(String name) throws BeansException {
return doGetBean(name, null, null, false);
}

doGetBean方法内容太多,一段一段看。

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protected <T> T doGetBean(
final String name, final Class<T> requiredType, final Object[] args, boolean typeCheckOnly)
throws BeansException {

final String beanName = transformedBeanName(name);
Object bean;

// Eagerly check singleton cache for manually registered singletons.
Object sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
if (sharedInstance != null && args == null) {
if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
if (isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
logger.debug("Returning eagerly cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName +
"' that is not fully initialized yet - a consequence of a circular reference");
}
else {
logger.debug("Returning cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName + "'");
}
}
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, null);
}

这里主要看Object sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName)

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protected Object getSingleton(String beanName, boolean allowEarlyReference) {
Object singletonObject = this.singletonObjects.get(beanName);
if (singletonObject == null && isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
synchronized (this.singletonObjects) {
singletonObject = this.earlySingletonObjects.get(beanName);
if (singletonObject == null && allowEarlyReference) {
ObjectFactory<?> singletonFactory = this.singletonFactories.get(beanName);
if (singletonFactory != null) {
singletonObject = singletonFactory.getObject();
this.earlySingletonObjects.put(beanName, singletonObject);
this.singletonFactories.remove(beanName);
}
}
}
}
return (singletonObject != NULL_OBJECT ? singletonObject : null);
}

这里能看到,Spring会把实例化好的bean存入singletonObjects,这是一个ConcurrentHashMap

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private final Map<String, Object> singletonObjects = new ConcurrentHashMap<String, Object>(64);

当然这里我们bean并未实例化过,所以这里应该也不能get出什么东西来,也就是返回null了。if子句也就不会执行了。那么接着看else子句的内容。

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else {
// Fail if we're already creating this bean instance:
// We're assumably within a circular reference.
if (isPrototypeCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName);
}

// Check if bean definition exists in this factory.
BeanFactory parentBeanFactory = getParentBeanFactory();
if (parentBeanFactory != null && !containsBeanDefinition(beanName)) {
// Not found -> check parent.
String nameToLookup = originalBeanName(name);
if (args != null) {
// Delegation to parent with explicit args.
return (T) parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, args);
}
else {
// No args -> delegate to standard getBean method.
return parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, requiredType);
}
}

这两条验证也都不会实现,接写来就是重点了。

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try {
final RootBeanDefinition mbd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
checkMergedBeanDefinition(mbd, beanName, args);

// Guarantee initialization of beans that the current bean depends on.
String[] dependsOn = mbd.getDependsOn();
if (dependsOn != null) {
for (String dependsOnBean : dependsOn) {
if (isDependent(beanName, dependsOnBean)) {
throw new BeanCreationException("Circular depends-on relationship between '" +
beanName + "' and '" + dependsOnBean + "'");
}
registerDependentBean(dependsOnBean, beanName);
getBean(dependsOnBean);
}
}

// Create bean instance.
if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName, new ObjectFactory<Object>() {
@Override
public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
try {
return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
catch (BeansException ex) {
// Explicitly remove instance from singleton cache: It might have been put there
// eagerly by the creation process, to allow for circular reference resolution.
// Also remove any beans that received a temporary reference to the bean.
destroySingleton(beanName);
throw ex;
}
}
});
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}

else if (mbd.isPrototype()) {
// It's a prototype -> create a new instance.
Object prototypeInstance = null;
try {
beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
prototypeInstance = createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
finally {
afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
}
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(prototypeInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}

else {
String scopeName = mbd.getScope();
final Scope scope = this.scopes.get(scopeName);
if (scope == null) {
throw new IllegalStateException("No Scope registered for scope '" + scopeName + "'");
}
try {
Object scopedInstance = scope.get(beanName, new ObjectFactory<Object>() {
@Override
public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
try {
return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
}
finally {
afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
}
}
});
bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(scopedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
}
catch (IllegalStateException ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException(beanName,
"Scope '" + scopeName + "' is not active for the current thread; " +
"consider defining a scoped proxy for this bean if you intend to refer to it from a singleton",
ex);
}
}
}

在这里拿到RootBeanDefinition并check,并获得bean的依赖,并循环迭代实例化bean。例如class A依赖于class B,就会先实例化B。下面的if ... else ...就是真正实例化bean的地方。其实真正实例化bean的方法是createBean(beanName, mbd, args),只是区分了isSingletonisPrototype,两者的区别在于,单例的(Singleton)被缓存起来,而Prototype是不用缓存的。首先看一下createBean(beanName, mbd, args)createBean方法中除了做了一些实例化bean前的检查准备工作外,最核心的方法就是

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Object beanInstance = doCreateBean(beanName, mbd, args);

由于这个过程涉及到的代码都是一大坨,就不贴出所有代码了。

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BeanWrapper instanceWrapper = null;
if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
instanceWrapper = this.factoryBeanInstanceCache.remove(beanName);
}
if (instanceWrapper == null) {
instanceWrapper = createBeanInstance(beanName, mbd, args);
}
final Object bean = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedInstance() : null);
Class<?> beanType = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedClass() : null);

首先就是创建一个bean的实例且封装到BeanWrapper中,在这里bean已经实例化了。具体的实现方法是在org.springframework.beans.factory.support.SimpleInstantiationStrategy.instantiate(RootBeanDefinition beanDefinition, String beanName, BeanFactory owner)中。

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@Override
public Object instantiate(RootBeanDefinition beanDefinition, String beanName, BeanFactory owner) {
// Don't override the class with CGLIB if no overrides.
if (beanDefinition.getMethodOverrides().isEmpty()) {
Constructor<?> constructorToUse;
synchronized (beanDefinition.constructorArgumentLock) {
constructorToUse = (Constructor<?>) beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod;
if (constructorToUse == null) {
final Class<?> clazz = beanDefinition.getBeanClass();
if (clazz.isInterface()) {
throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "Specified class is an interface");
}
try {
if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
constructorToUse = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedExceptionAction<Constructor<?>>() {
@Override
public Constructor<?> run() throws Exception {
return clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
}
});
}
else {
constructorToUse = clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
}
beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod = constructorToUse;
}
catch (Exception ex) {
throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "No default constructor found", ex);
}
}
}
return BeanUtils.instantiateClass(constructorToUse);
}
else {
// Must generate CGLIB subclass.
return instantiateWithMethodInjection(beanDefinition, beanName, owner);
}
}

在这里不难看出实例化分两种情况,如果没有无参构造器是就生成CGLIB子类,否则就直接反射成实例。

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public static <T> T instantiateClass(Constructor<T> ctor, Object... args) throws BeanInstantiationException {
Assert.notNull(ctor, "Constructor must not be null");
try {
ReflectionUtils.makeAccessible(ctor);
return ctor.newInstance(args);
}

既然已经有了实例对象了,那么,Spring是如何将bean的属性注入到bean的呢?返回到上面的doCreateBean方法中。往下看找到populateBean(beanName, mbd, instanceWrapper);,内幕就在这里。只贴部分代码:

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boolean hasInstAwareBpps = hasInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessors();
boolean needsDepCheck = (mbd.getDependencyCheck() != RootBeanDefinition.DEPENDENCY_CHECK_NONE);

if (hasInstAwareBpps || needsDepCheck) {
PropertyDescriptor[] filteredPds = filterPropertyDescriptorsForDependencyCheck(bw, mbd.allowCaching);
if (hasInstAwareBpps) {
for (BeanPostProcessor bp : getBeanPostProcessors()) {
if (bp instanceof InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor) {
InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor ibp = (InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor) bp;
pvs = ibp.postProcessPropertyValues(pvs, filteredPds, bw.getWrappedInstance(), beanName);
if (pvs == null) {

return;
}
}
}
}
if (needsDepCheck) {
checkDependencies(beanName, mbd, filteredPds, pvs);
}
}

这里是调用InstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor的具体子类的ibp.postProcessPropertyValues方法注入属性。当我们使用@Resource注解的时候,具体的子类是CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor;如果使用的是@Autowired注解,则具体的子类是AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor。此方法内是委托InjectionMetadata对象来完成属性注入。

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@Override
public PropertyValues postProcessPropertyValues(
PropertyValues pvs, PropertyDescriptor[] pds, Object bean, String beanName) throws BeansException {

InjectionMetadata metadata = findAutowiringMetadata(beanName, bean.getClass());
try {

metadata.inject(bean, beanName, pvs);
}
catch (Throwable ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException(beanName, "Injection of autowired dependencies failed", ex);
}
return pvs;
}

findAutowiringMetadata方法能拿到使用了特定注解的属性(Field)、方法(Method)及依赖的关系保存到checkedElements集合<Set>里,然后再执行自己的inject方法。

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public void inject(Object target, String beanName, PropertyValues pvs) throws Throwable {
Collection<InjectedElement> elementsToIterate =
(this.checkedElements != null ? this.checkedElements : this.injectedElements);
if (!elementsToIterate.isEmpty()) {
boolean debug = logger.isDebugEnabled();
for (InjectedElement element : elementsToIterate) {
if (debug) {
logger.debug("Processing injected method of bean '" + beanName + "': " + element);
}
element.inject(target, beanName, pvs);
}
}
}

真正干事的还是InjectedElementinject方法。

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@Override
protected void inject(Object bean, String beanName, PropertyValues pvs) throws Throwable {
Field field = (Field) this.member;
try {
Object value;
if (this.cached) {
value = resolvedCachedArgument(beanName, this.cachedFieldValue);
}
else {
DependencyDescriptor desc = new DependencyDescriptor(field, this.required);
desc.setContainingClass(bean.getClass());
Set<String> autowiredBeanNames = new LinkedHashSet<String>(1);
TypeConverter typeConverter = beanFactory.getTypeConverter();
value = beanFactory.resolveDependency(desc, beanName, autowiredBeanNames, typeConverter);
synchronized (this) {
if (!this.cached) {
if (value != null || this.required) {
this.cachedFieldValue = desc;
registerDependentBeans(beanName, autowiredBeanNames);
if (autowiredBeanNames.size() == 1) {
String autowiredBeanName = autowiredBeanNames.iterator().next();
if (beanFactory.containsBean(autowiredBeanName)) {
if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(autowiredBeanName, field.getType())) {
this.cachedFieldValue = new RuntimeBeanReference(autowiredBeanName);
}
}
}
}
else {
this.cachedFieldValue = null;
}
this.cached = true;
}
}
}
if (value != null) {
ReflectionUtils.makeAccessible(field);
field.set(bean, value);
}
}
catch (Throwable ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException("Could not autowire field: " + field, ex);
}
}
}

其实别看代码这么多,最关键的部分就是:

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if (value != null) {
ReflectionUtils.makeAccessible(field);
field.set(bean, value);
}

在这里也就真相大白了,就是通过JDK反射特性,直接set值的。